Backhaul - Refers to a load of freight which permits a trucker to return to his home with a loaded truck, rather than an empty one.
Barge - The cargo-carrying vehicle that inland water carriers primarily use. Basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes
Bill of Lading - An itemized list of goods contained in a shipment
Billing - Preparation of the freight bill, the primary document for a common carrier shipment including a description of the freight, number of pieces and charges
Bogie - An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for purpose of converting a semitrailer to a full trailer. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit. (Also referred to as dolly)
Bottleneck - A section of a highway or rail network that experiences operational problems such as congestion. Bottlenecks may result from factors such as reduced roadway width or steep freeway grades that can slow trucks.
Break Bulk - To separate a composite load into individual shipments and route to different destinations;
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Broker - A person whose business it is to prepare shipping and customs documents for international shipments. Brokers often have offices at major freight gateways, including border crossings, seaports, and airports.
Bulk Cargo - Cargo that is unbound as loaded; it is without count in a loose unpackaged form. Examples of bulk cargo include coal, grain, and petroleum products.
Cabotage - A national law that requires costal and intercostal traffic to be carried in its own nationally registered, and sometimes built and crewed ships.
COFC - Container on (rail) flat car. A form of intermodal movement of freight using a box suitable for use on rail cars, trailer frames, and container ships. Containers come in many sizes. International containers which are used on ships usually have height and width of eight feet. Length can vary, but 20 and 40 foot lengths are the most common. US domestic containers are generally taller than international containers.
Combination Vehicle - An equipment configuration which includes separate power unit (tractor) and at least one trailer
Common Carrier - Any carrier engaged in the interstate transportation of persons/property on a regular schedule at published rates, whose services are for hire to the general public.
Consignee - The receiver of a freight shipment, usually the buyer.
Consignor - The sender of a freight shipment, usually the seller.
Container - A "box"' typically ten to forty feet long, which is used primarily for ocean freight shipment. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis' or on railroad flatcars.
Connecting Carrier - A carrier which interchanges trailers with another for completion of shipments.
Dispatching - The scheduling and control of truck pickup and delivery.
Dolly - An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for purpose of converting a semitrailer to a full trailer. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a singlepower unit.(also referred to as Bogie)
Domestic Intercity Trucking - Trucking operations within the territory of the United States, including intra-Hawaiian and intra-Alaskan, which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones
Double - A combination of two trailers pulled by a power unit. Usually refers to a power unit pulling two 28' trailers. See also Rocky Mountain Double and Turnpike Double
Enroute - On the way
Fifth Wheel - A device used to connect a semi-trailer and tractor
Find Freight - Looking for a commodity being shipped from one destination to another.
Flatbed - A trailer without sides used for hauling machinery or other bulky items.
Freight - Any commodity being transported
Freight Bill - Document for a common carrier shipment. Gives description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges, taxes, and whether collect or prepaid. Charges paid in advance are called prepaid freight bills. charges collected at the destination are called destination or collect freight bills
Find a Freight Broker - Looking for a freight broker to haul a shipment from point A to point B.
Freight Broker - Any person who sells transportation without actually providing it. Usually refers to agent for TL shipments, matching small shippers with carriers. Freight brokers often do not accept any responsibility for their shipments.
Freight Forwarder - An individual or company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) or less-than-carload (LCL) shipments from shippers and combines then into carload or truckload lots. Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act. Freight forwarders issue a bill of lading for shipments and accept responsibility for cargo.
GCW - Gross Combination Weight see Gross Vehicle Weight
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) - The maximum allowable fully laden weight of a truck and its payload. the most common classification scheme used by manufacturers and by states.
Hazardous Material - A substance or material which the Department of Transportation has determined to be capable of posing a risk to health, safety, and property when stored or transported in commerce.
Heavy Duty Truck - Truck with a gross vehicle weight generally in excess of 19,500 pounds (class 6-8). Other minimum weights are used by various laws or government agencies
ICC - Interstate Commerce Commission - The federal body charged with enforcing Acts of Congress affecting interstate commerce. Because of recent changes in regulation, this body may be obsolete.
Intercity Trucking - Trucking operations which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones
Intermodal Transportation - Transportation movement involving more than one mode, e.g. rail-motor, motor-air, or rail-water
Interline Freight - Freight which moves from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) - The federal body charged with enforcing Acts of Congress affecting interstate commerce
ISTA - Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991.
Less Than Truckload (LTL) - A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate. The historical definition for LTL freight is shipments under 10,000 pounds. LTL carriers are carriers which specialize in shipments under 10,000 pounds. However, competition from other freight carriers restricts shipments for most LTL carriers to the range between 300 and 3000 pounds.
Find an LTL Motor Carrier - Looking for a carrier that requires an LTL shipment to their desired destination or surrounding cities.
LTL Motor Carrier - LTL carriers are carriers which specialize in shipments under 10,000 pounds. However, competition from other freight carriers restricts shipments for most LTL carriers to the range between 300 and 3000 pounds
Line Haul - Movement of freight between cities, excluding pickup and delivery service
Logbook - A daily record of the hours an interstate driver spends driving, off duty, sleeping in the berth, or on duty not driving.
Logistics - All activities involved in the management of product movement; delivering the right product from the right origin to the right destination, with the right quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price.
Lumpers - Individuals that assist a motor carrier owner operator in the unloading of property; quite commonly used in the food industry.
Modal Share - The percentage of total freight moved by a particular type of transportation
Operating expenses - The costs of handling traffic including both direct costs, e.g. driver wages and fuel; and indirect cots, e.g. computer expenses and advertising; but excludes interest expense.
Operating Ratio - A measure of profitability based on operating expenses as a percentage of gross revenues
Owner-operator - Trucking operation in which the owner of the truck is also the driver.
Piggyback - The transportation of highway trailers or removable trailer bodies on rail cars specifically equipped for the service. It is essentially a joint carrier movement in which the motor carrier forms a pickup and delivery operations to a rail terminal, as well as a delivery operation at the terminating rail head
Power Units - The control and pulling vehicle for trailers or semitrailers
Proof of Delivery - Information supplied by the carrier containing the name of the person who signed for the shipment, the time and date of delivery, and other shipment delivery related information.
Pull Logistics System - "Just in time" logistics system driven by customer demand and enabled by telecommunications and information systems rather than by manufacturing process and inventory stockpiling.
Purchase Order (PO) - The purchaser's authorization used to formalize a purchase transaction with a supplier. The physical form or electronic transaction a buyer uses when placing an order for merchandise.
Push Logistics System - Inventory-based logistics system characterized by regularly scheduled flows of products and high inventory levels.
Rating - Determination of the correct legal rate for a shipment
Reefer Trailer - A refrigerated trailer that is commonly used for perishable goods.
Reverse Logistics - A specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement and management of products and resources after the sale and after delivery to the customer. Includes product returns and repair for credit.
Receiving - The function encompassing the physical receipt of material, the inspection of the shipment for conformance with the purchase order (quantity and damage), the identification and delivery to destination, and the preparation of receiving reports.
Rocky Mountain Double - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor, a 45 to 48 foot semitrailer and a shorter 28 foot semitrailer
Semitrailer - Truck trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon a truck tractor
Shipper's Agent - Company which coordinates all aspects of an intermodal move, hiring drayage at both ends, and providing shippers with a single invoice. (See also Freight Forwarder and Broker)
SIC Code - Standard Industrial Classification Code A classification of establishments by type of activity in which they are engaged; for the purpose of facilitating the collection, tabulation, presentation and analysis of data relating to establishments, e.g. SIC 42 Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing SIC 421 Trucking,, Local and Long distance
Specialized Carrier - A trucking company franchised to transport articles which, because of size, shape, weight, or other inherent characteristics, require special equipment for lading, unloading or transporting.
State of Domicile - Companies - The state in which the carrier maintains its headquarters. Drivers - the state in which a driver resides.
Straight Truck - A vehicle with the cargo body and tractor mounted on the same chassis
Third Structure Tax - Any tax on road users other than registration fees or fuel taxes. See, for example, ton-mile tax and weight-distance tax.
TL - Truckload - (a) Quantity of freight required to fill a truck.
(b) When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate
(c) Historical definition is a shipment of 10,000 pounds or more.
Ton-Mile - The movement of one ton of freight a distance of one mile. Ton-miles are computed by multiplying the weight in tons of each shipment transported by the distance hauled for each movement. Total ton-miles for a carrier are calculated by adding the figure for all movements.
Ton-Mile Tax - A tax calculated by measuring the weight of each truck for each trip. The gross weight is assigned a tax rate which is multiplied by the miles of travel
Tracer - A request that a carrier locate a shipment to speed its movement or to establish proof of delivery, or a request for an answer to a previously filed claim
Truck Tonnage - The weight of freight in tons transported by truck
Truckload (TL) - Quantity of freight required to fill a truck. When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. Historical definition is a shipment of 10,000 pounds or more.
Turnpike Double - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor and two trailers of 45 to 48 feet.
Twin Trailer - A short semitrailer (under 29') designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length
Vehicle-Mile - A measurement of the total miles traveled by all vehicles in an area. Generally applies to intercity movements only
Waybill - Description of goods with a common carrier freight shipment
Weight-distance Tax - A tax basing the fee per mile on the registered gross weight of the vehicle. Total tax liability is calculated by multiplying this rate times miles traveled - -
Warehouse - Storage place for products. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product, storage, shipment and order picking.
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